Category: Obesity/Nutrition

Monitor: 3

3 - GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO HEALTHY EATING, SELF-EFFICACY, FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION IN A LOW-INCOME HISPANIC POPULATION

Thursday, Apr 25
12:30 PM – 1:00 PM

Objective :

A healthy diet may prevent many chronic conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. However, adhering to a healthy diet may be a challenge to many Americans today with 36.5% of U.S adults suffering from obesity. Perceived barriers to healthy eating (PBHE) include lack of knowledge, interest and time. Self-efficacy is the level of confidence that an individual can achieve a health outcome and this may affect health behaviors. This study aims to explore the difference in PBHE, self-efficacy, and actual fruit and vegetable consumption between males and females in a low-income Hispanic population.


Methods : A survey assessing demographics, PBHE, self-efficacy, and actual fruit and vegetable consumption was administered to recruited subjects ≥18 years old.  PBHE items included Likert scale responses to “I know how to cook healthy food”and “healthy food takes too long to prepare”, etc.  Self-efficacy items included confidence in eating at least “2 servings of fruit a day” and “3 servings of vegetable a day”, etc. Chi-squared analyses were conducted to assess the association between various categorical variables.


Results :

The final analysis included 381 subjects. More than half were female (70.3%), 52% were Hispanics. 47.8% had annual income of ≤$24,999, and 20.9%  had T2DM. 


In both genders, confidence in consumption of ≥3 servings of vegetables/day was associated with actual consumption of ≥ 7 servings/week of all categories of fruit and vegetables (p≤0.001). Females and males also had similar results in terms of preference for healthy food (p= 0.0114).


For males, confidence in limiting fast food was correlated with consumption of ≥ 7 servings/week of dark green vegetables (p=0.039), but this association was not significant for female.


Moreover, females were more likely than males to agree on: knowing how to cook more healthy food (p = 0.0161), consuming ≥7 servings/week of fruit (p=0.003), and consuming ≥ 7 servings/week of green vegetables (p= 0.013). Males were more likely than female to agree that healthy food takes too long to prepare (p= 0.0194).


Discussion : In this population, females were more likely to consume ≥7 servings/week of fruit and vegetables than males. They also reported better knowledge about healthy cooking. Females and males had different patterns of association between self-efficacy and actual fruit and vegetable consumption.


Conclusion : The study reveals how PBHE, self-efficacy, fruit and vegetable consumption differ between male and female. This may offer an opportunity for healthcare professionals to consider different educational strategies depending on gender.

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Tam T. Faulds

Medical Student
Western University of Health Sciences
Upland, California

Soka University of America, Aliso Viejo, California
Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts (2011-2015)
Concentration: Social and Behavioral Sciences
Cumulative GPA: 3.87

Institute Catholique de Paris, France
Study Abroad (Fall 2013)
GPA: 4.00

Charles R. Drew University of Health Science
Post-Baccalaureate Pre-medicine (2015-present)
Cumulative GPA: 4.0

Western University of Health Sciences
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine Candidate
Expected year of graduation: 2021

Awards and Achievements:
- Singapore’s Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) scholarship ((2006-2010)) - merit-based, full-ride scholarship for Ordinary (O-level) and Advanced (A-level) Certificates of Education.
- Soka Global Merit Scholarship (2011 - 2015): merit-based, full-ride scholarship for undergraduate studies.
- Dean’s List at Soka University of America: 8 semesters.
- Graduated with honors: Magna cum Laude.
- Member of the Sigma Sigma Phi Osteopathic Medicine Honor Society , Mu Chapter at College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific

Skills:
• Bilingual in English and Vietnamese; intermediate proficiency in French, elementary proficiency in Spanish.
• American Heart Association’s CPR certification
Work experience
• 2011-2012: Chemistry laboratory assistant – assist the professor to create laboratory materials, type and compile quizzes, organize chemicals, clean glassware.
• 2012-2013: Front-desk receptionist at the Soka University Writing Center – coordinate appointments, answer phone calls and carry out other office tasks like copying, scanning and faxing.

Volunteering and Shadowing Experience:
• 2012 – 2013: Orange County Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Center– Dr. Son Duong’s clinic: assist with administrative tasks and greet patients, etc. (approximately 250 hours)
• 2014 - 2015: Emergency Department volunteer at Saddleback Memorial Hospital (Laguna Hills, CA): restock laboratory cart, assist patient’s feeding and transportation, etc. (approximately 100 hours)
• 2015-present: Clinical Care Extender at St. Francis Medical Center (Lynwood, CA): rotate through different departments, including medical/surgical, post-partum and ICU; take vitals, prepare rooms and beds, transport, bathe, feed, reposition patients and assist nurses with errands. (approximately 100 hours)
• 2016-present: Shadow Dr. Jose Dalprat – family medicine physician (Orange, CA): Approximately 50 hours
• Pipeline to Health Career at WesternU: mentor 8th grade students who are interested in a career in health science

Activities:
• President of the French club (2012-2013) – organized a fund-raising event that raised over $250 for club activities, initiated weekly activities that promote the Francophone-countries’ culture through movie screening, cooking sessions, etc.

Leadership:
• Montclair Clinic Coordinator (2017-2018): Organize and coordinate volunteers for low-income patients health screening at Montclair Clinic
• Asian American Health Professional Student Association (AAHPSA): Community Outreach Chair: manage the association between the club and the national association APAMSA
• Western University Vietnamese Student Association: Cultural Director – organizes cultural events and activities for members

Patricia Doan

Medical Student
Western University of Health Sciences

Western University of Health Sciences, 2nd Year Medical Student
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.)

Pitzer College, 2016,
Bachelor of Arts, Biology, Chemistry Minor

Institute for Central American Development Studies, 2014
Pitzer Summer Study Abroad Health Program in Costa Rica


PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS
• Student Association of American College of Family Physicians (SAACOFP), 2017-present
• Student Osteopathic Medical Association (SOMA), 2017-present
• Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association (APAMSA), 2017-present

CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

Longitudinal Chronic Care Course (LC3)
• November 2017-present
• Pomona, CA
• Parried with a single patient, I am given the opportunity to follow my patient throughout my four years in medical school.
• I visit my patient during dialysis treatments, doctor’s appointments, and nutritional sessions.
• Gained insight into the unique lifestyle and challenges faced by patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes and chronic kidney failure.
Medical Scribe at Murrieta Valley Surgery Associates
• August 2016-June 2017
• Temecula, CA
• Documented patient records for preoperative surgical, post-operative, and follow-up consultations.
• Trained incoming scribes on terminology and EMR protocols.
• Cleaned and prepped consultation rooms.
San Antonio EBAIS Intern
• June- July 2014
• San Antonio, Costa Rica
• Assisted the primary care technical assistant (ATAP) as they vaccinated, updated patient records, and personally visited families and personnel within their assigned communities.
Clinical Care Extender
• August 2013-15
• Riverside Community Hospital, CA
• Completed 5 different rotations through the Labor & Delivery, Emergency, MedSurg, Pediatrician, and Telemetry department. Assisted nurses and CNAs with inpatient care for 400+ hours.


RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

Keck Science Department Research Assistant, Dr. Jessica Malisch Lab
• June 2015-May 2016
• Claremont, CA
• Sleep Duration and Quality in Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha in Response to Stress: Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA
• Collected data, analyzed data, and maintained detailed lab notes
• Co-authored published abstract (manuscript in prep)
• Presented research with Dr. Malisch at the 2016 SICB Conference


LEADERSHIP

Student Association of American College of Family Physicians Club (WesternU ACOFP)- President Club Officer
• January 2018-present
• Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA
• Organized medical student panels at the Claremont Colleges, free health screenings (glucose testing, cholesterol testing, and osteopathic manipulative treatments) in the city of Pomona, guess speaker lectures and suturing workshops for the students at Western University of Health Sciences.
WesternU Vietnamese Student Association (WVSA)- Public Relations Club Officer
• January 2018-present
• Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA
• Designed flyers and social announcements for WVSA sponsored events. Planned fundraisers to fund for clinic supplies for our free health screening and vaccination clinics as we partnered with Pharmacy students at WesternU. Organized social events like badminton and culture shows throughout the academic year.
Asian Pacific American Medical Student Association (APAMSA)
• September 2017-present
• Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA
• Volunteered at free health screenings that included glucose and cholesterol testing. Osteopathic manipulative treatments were performed under a preceptor’s guidance.
Vertebrate Physiology Laboratory TA
• September 2015-May 2016
• Pitzer College, Claremont, CA
• Assisted faculty member with classroom and laboratory preparation. Advised students during lab and office hours on projects, assignments, and reports.
Chemistry Laboratory TA
• September 2013- May 14
• Pitzer College, Claremont, CA
• Assisted faculty member with laboratory preparation. Advised students during lab and office hours on projects and graded weekly assignments.
Center for Asian Pacific American Students Intern (CAPAS)
• September 2014-June 2016
• Pitzer College, Claremont, CA
• Participated within committees to organize and manage CAPAS sponsored events and safe spaces for educational dialogue related to Asian and Pacific Islander ethnic and racial community issues.
VSA Public Relations Officer
• September 2013-May 2016
• Pitzer College, Claremont, CA
• Managed relationships between the Vietnamese Student Association and other Claremont College consortium organizations. Recruited members and advertised VSA social and cultural events in order to strengthen Vietnamese-American awareness.
Bike Program Committee Member
• September 2014-May 2016
• Pitzer College, Claremont, CA
• Organized bike safety workshops, bike shares, and bike ride throughout the Inland Empire to increase environmental sustainability and equitable health through collaborative empowerment and education.
Senior Class Gift Committee Member
• February 2016
• Pitzer College, Claremont, CA
• Fundraised donation from senior to Pitzer College and assisted senior class events and celebrations.

VOLUNTEERING EXPERIENCES
GSMDM Summer Mission Committee Member
• December 2014-Present
• Cao Bang, Vietnam
• Prepared applications for incoming volunteers and interviewed potential candidates
• Organized training retreats throughout the year for incoming volunteers in preparation for the summer trip
• Networked with doctors and other non-profits to organize medical supplies and medical training.
• Fundraised for the medical dental mission trip months before the summer.
• Translated for the GSMDM medical, dental, and surgical team in Vietnam for 2 weeks.

GenerationHER
• September-December 2017
• Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA
• Volunteered at weekly meetings to help empower teenage mothers by connecting them to a supportive environment and safe space. Workshops were organized to educate young mothers about finances, child development, and meal prepping.
God’s Pantry
• February 2018
• Pomona, CA
• Volunteered to distribute free groceries to people in Pomona. We packaged food items, pasted items out, and helped individuals load their groceries into their cars.
Pomona Health Career Ladder
• September- present
• Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA
• Organized and held weekend educational activities for 6th graders on topics ranging from basic science topics to mental health issues. Mentored high school students through the additional program, “Step Ladder”.
Youth Group Associate Activities Director
• August 2009-Present
• OLPH, Riverside, CA
• Managed and mediated a safe space for group discussions and personal growth. Organized monthly meetings, events, and volunteer opportunities for the youth.

PUBLICATIONS

• Published Abstract
o Malisch, J.L., E. Johnson, P. Doan, A. Tang, J.T. Humphries, O.L. Crino, and C.W. Breuner. 2016. Acute stress decreases corticosteroid-binding globulin for 24 hours and a second stressor during this time increases sleep disruptions in Mountain White-crowned Sparrows. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. Annual Meeting. Portland, Oregon.

LANGUAGE

• English (Fluent), Vietnamese (Fluent), Spanish (Beginner)

HOBBIES AND INTEREST

• Avid hiker, reading, dessert baking

OTHER ACHIEVEMENTS & AWARDS

• Rose Hills Foundation STEM Scholarship 2015-16
• HHMI Scholarship 2015
• Community Foundation Scholarship 2012-16
• Gilman International Scholarship 2014
• Mead Foundation Endowed Scholarship 2012-13

Airani Sathananthan

Associate Professor
Western University of Health Science
Pomona, California

Airani Sathananthan M.D. is an Associate professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences in Pomona, CA. She completed her Endocrinology Fellowship at Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN. She teaches medical students, conducts clinical research and sees patients on the WesternU campus.

Fanglong Dong

Assistant Professor
Western University of Health Sciences
Pomona, California

Dr. Fanglong Dong is an Associate professor at Graduate College of Biomedical Sciences, Western University of Health Sciences in Pomona, CA. He received in PhD degree in Statistics in 2008 from Bowling Green State University.

Tam Faulds