Objective : This study evaluates by ultrasound the non-symptomatic correlates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on liver anatomy according to the anthropometry of male patients.
Methods : Twenty-eight (n = 28) participants underwent craniocaudal panoramic (PAN) ultrasound imaging of the right liver lobe (RLL) in the anterior axillary region (AAR). Liver texture, size and hemodynamics of the portal vein and the hepatic artery were evaluated. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipid profile (low and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL and HDL), and triglycerides were monitored. Kruskal-Wallis followed by multiple pairwise comparisons using Dunn’s procedure were employed with significance attained at p < 0.05.
Results : Non-symptomatic significant differences were detected among non-controlled T2DM male patients: (1) Largest RLL length (p=0.04); (2) Higher BMI (p=0.008); (3) Higher Waist circumference (p=0.002); (4) Lower main portal vein pulsatility index (0.02); (5) Lower LDL levels (p=0.04); (6) Higher alkaline phosphatase levels (p=0.05); and (7) presence of severe fatty liver infiltration and hepatomegaly.
Discussion : Early changes in liver anatomy can be detected by ultrasound in patients with Diabetes Mellitus. These changes are more prominent in patients with uncontrolled glucose levels.
Conclusion : Diagnostic ultrasound allows for the monitoring of non-symptomatic changes in liver anatomy among T2DM male patients across anthropometric profiles.
Loida Gonzalez-Rodriguez– Assistant Professor, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Division, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Barbara Riestra-Candelaria– Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Puerto Rico
Wilma Rodriguez-Mojica– Professor, University of Puerto Rico - Department of Radiological Sciences
Juan Jorge– Professor, University of Puerto Rico - Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology
University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine - Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Division
San Juan, Puerto Rico
Loida A. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, MD is an Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism specialist in San Juan, Puerto Rico. She graduated from University of Puerto Rico - School of Medicine in 2008, completed her specialty in Internal Medicine in 2011 and her sub-specialty in Endocrinology in 2014 at the University Hospital of Puerto Rico. Since then she has been Assistant Professor at the Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Division of the University of Puerto Rico. Dr. Gonzalez-Rodriguez also participates in different research projects in the area of endocrinology.
University of Puerto Rico
Dr. Riestra-Candelaria completed her PhD in Anatomy at the University of Puerto RIco - School of Medicine in 2018. The main focus of her work is the anatomical changes in liver measured by ultrasonography secondary to Diabetes Mellitus.
University of Puerto Rico - Department of Radiological Sciences
Dr. Wilma Rodriguez-Mojica is a diagnostic radiology specialist and professor at the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. She graduated from University Of Puerto Rico School Of Medicine in 1970 and specializes in diagnostic radiology. Dr. Rodríguez-Mojica dedicated herself to developing the subspecialty of diagnostic sonography and today she is considered the pioneer in Puerto Rico. Dr. Rodríguez devoted herself to training radiological technologists, residents of radiology and physicians.
University of Puerto Rico - Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology
Dr. Juan C. Jorge is a Professor at the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine – Anatomy and Neurobiology Department. He completed his BA degree in Psychology at the University of Puerto Rico in 1989. He completed his PhD in Neuroscience at Brandeis University, Waltham-MA in 1997 and his postdoctoral degree in Physiology and Endocrinology at the Dartmouth Medical School. His research areas of interest include Congenital urogenital (UG) tract conditions, patient outcomes oriented research, sexual differentiation of behavior, clinical management of sex and gender from historical and policy perspectives, gender theory, and medical humanities.