Objective : The last National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey estimated 41% of United States population is Vitamin D deficient, leading to considerable interest in the role of Vitamin D. Recent reports link low Vitamin D levels with poorly controlled blood sugars and suggest Vitamin D is implicated in the homeostasis of glucose metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in an established Diabetic population as compared to the general U.S. population.
Methods : This cross-sectional study involved a chart review of a sample of 106 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients with normal renal function seen at a New Jersey Endocrinology office in 2018. The data collected included age, race, gender, vitamin D level, and serum creatinine. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level below 30 ng/mL. Mean age of study was 63.9 with 52.8% Males and 47.2% Females. The data was analyzed with a chi squared test and significant p value < .05.
Results : A total of 102 out of 106 patients, 96.2% of the studied diabetic population, had low vitamin D levels. Highest percent of vitamin D deficiency was found in the Hispanic population (100%), followed by African Americans (97.7%), Asians (88.9%) and Caucasians (88.2%). Observed association did not differ by sex (96% Males, 96% Females). Statistical analysis revealed chi squared 136.2 and p value < .00001.
Discussion : Based on a well-defined population in New Jersey, we have shown that the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in Type 2 Diabetics is greater than 2.3 times that of the general population in the United States; this data is statistically significant. Highest prevalence is noted in Hispanic and African American populations.
Conclusion : This study shows the high burden of Vitamin D deficiency on type 2 Diabetics, who should have Vitamin D levels routinely checked, with appropriate repletion, to improve glycemic control.
Morristown Medical Center
Internal Medicine Resident Physician PGY1 at Morristown Medical Center in Morristown, New Jersey.
RWJ Barnabas Health
Practicing Endocrinologist in Newark, New Jersey for 22 years. Affiliated with RWJ Barnabas Health System Hospitals. Former Chief of Endocrine at Columbus Hospital, New Jersey. Voted one of New Jersey's Top Doctors several years in a row.