The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of complications and the risk factors among uncontrolled type 2 diabetes subjects in a tertiary care hospital in India.
100 long standing type 2 diabetes subjects were included in this cross-sectional study (mean duration 10 years or greater and HbA1C of >7). They were screened for neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral arterial disease using a standardized. The data was collected, compiled and then analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.
In our subjects, the urine microalbumin was positive in 45% of our patients compared to an average prevalence of 15% in the general diabetic population. Retinopathy was noted in 49% of subjects 21% compared to an average prevalence of 15% in the general diabetic population in the literature. Neuropathy was noted in 70% of our patients compared to a prevalence of 30% in the general diabetic population in the literature. Peripheral arterial disease was noted in 28% compared to a prevalence of 18% in the general diabetic population in the literature. There was significantly higher incidence of complications in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. However, no correlation was found to exist between age of the patients and the presence of complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy or nephropathy (P=0.639, 0.156 and 0.541 respectively). No correlation was found to exist between gender of the patients and the presence of complications like retinopathy, neuropathy or nephropathy (p – 0.488, 0.439 and 0.126 respectively). No correlation was found to exist between triglyceride levels of the patients and the presence of complications like retinopathy, neuropathy or nephropathy (p – 0.381, 0.156 and 0.877 respectively).
Diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy are independent of age group, gender and triglyceride levels. Although no correlation was found in this study between the factors such as age and triglyceride levels with diabetic complications, this is still an interesting study of 100 subjects screened at a tertiary care hospital. The major limitation of this study is the small sample size which can affect the results. Also, though the incidence of these complications is much higher in our sample of uncontrolled diabetic patients, there was no significant correlation between these complications and the above risk factors.
This study suggests that though there is an increase in the incidence of the complications, no association between age, gender and triglyceride levels and the various diabetic complications was noted. Nonetheless, good control of diabetes is needed to reduce overall risk of complications with time.
Apollo Hospital, India
I am an internist at Apollo Hospital, Hyderabad, India